Age-related differences appear to be important during transitional movements because it is widely accepted that aging and a decline in numerous physical performance measures are linked.
Some investigators have claimed that strategies of the STS task were slightly different between healthy young and older adults 34 , Much STS research have been carried out on deconditioned older people, because older people often have functional limitations, leading to difficulty in achieving extension of the hips, the legs and the trunk, and they move more slowly Self-reported movement times did not differ between physical and imagined STS movements in young and older adults.
Moreover, the ability to generate MI did not differ between young and older participants. It is generally known that an action has an overt stage and a covert stage. Every overtly executed action implies the existence of a covert stage while a covert action need not have an overt stage. The covert stage is a representation of the action that consists of the purpose of the action, the information needed to practice it, and the possible outcomes. This stage includes not only self-intending action that will become eventually executed action, but also imagined action and recognizing tools The process of imagining body movements is so similar to the act of performing them that imagined actions are thought to be simulations of their physical counterparts 14 , Likewise, neurophysiological evidence supports a unitary mechanism for action representation and execution 17 , 18 , and brain imaging also points to common loci of cortical activation between motor imagery and execution 19 , 20 , 21 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 and similar the excitability of the corticomotor pathway, in term of temporal and spatial characteristics between motor imagery and actual movements However, according to previous literature reviews, research on the impact of MI on higher-level control for STS movement is still rare.
The EEG feature in young participants for the parietal and occipital lobes during imagined STS differed from during physical standing. In other words, the high frequency of the alpha wave was found at In contrast, the EEG feature for the parietal and occipital lobes during imagined STS in older participants displayed all of three brain waves, especially the beta wave.
The presence of the alpha wave can imply the brain is less stimulated, which leads to relaxation In this study, the alpha wave was found in the parietal and occipital lobes during imagery, especially in young people. So, it can be said that the brain had less tasks to perform during imagery, which brought about relaxation, especially considering the occipital lobe displayed the lower frequency rate than the parietal lobe. This evidence supports the study of Guillot and Collet 51 who claimed that the stimulation from first person and visual MI is different from that of first person and kinesthetic MI.
Whereas kinesthetic imagery necessarily focuses attention on body-internal aspects of motor coordination, visual imagery can focus on body-external, goal-related aspects of the movement. The explanation in previous findings was that both the occipital lobe and the superior parietal lobe will be stimulated if the movement is visualized through imagery. On the other hand, if there is an feeling of movement kinesthetic imagery , the inferior parietal lobe and the motor-related area, consisting of the premotor and motor areas, will be stimulated.
In this study, participants were asked to perform imagined STS by using kinesthetic imagery. Therefore, the parietal and occipital lobes during imagery were less activated in young people. Interestingly, in older people the beta wave was found more than alpha wave for the parietal and occipital lobes during imagined STS.
This result revealed that the parietal and occipital lobes would be stimulated during imagery. Probably, older people are known to accrue deficits in motor planning 52 that increase reliance on visual information to guide movements 53 as proprioceptive control deteriorates with decreasing muscular strength Moreover, there is conflicting evidence for the EEG activity during motor imagery depending on the nature of the task.
The beta wave has been shown to reflect the active engagement in encoding and memory retention and highest during focused task-related activation, particularly a newly-learned task 55 , This suggests that young and older participants may respond differently. However, to clarify the impact of aging effects on memory ability, the further study should to screen for working memory i. The participants in the present study were asked to imagine the feeling of the STS movement, and the result was consistent with previous research in this regard.
The results from this study revealed that the temporal and frontal lobes would be stimulated during imagery, similar to the brain functions during actual STS. This is due to the fact that the temporal lobe is part of higher-level sensory processing, which is responsible for stimulus identification and response selection 57 , Even though no external stimulus was shown in the sensory area of the parietal lobe during imagery, during this state, stimuli from working memory was used 51 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , which takes place in higher-level sensory processing.
Both the temporal and parietal lobes would, then, be stimulated. Although there was a high frequency of the alpha wave found in the parietal lobe, implying that there was less stimulus in this area. However, higher frequency of alpha is reflected during states of arousal, attention and readiness to perform cognitive tasks including working memory. These processes play important role for motor imagery because motor imagery is the ability to imagined performance of movement within a complex cognitive organization that requires memory and spatial attention without an overt movement In addition, the results revealed that the frontal lobe was stimulated during imagined STS.
This can be attributed to the fact that the frontal lobe is essential for executive movement, processing both stimulus identification and response selection via the prefrontal cortex and association areas, as well as response programming via the supplementary motor cortex The response programming directly related to executive movement is mainly the motor program. This program draws the muscles together with the proper force and time needed to respond The current results on brain function during imagined STS supports previous research 18 , 21 , 40 , 45 , 46 , 62 , 64 , which claims that the brain function process during movement imagery is quite similar to that during the actual movement.
Interestingly, this finding found that the ability to generate MI, in term of the period of time, did not differ between young and older people, but the brain activity was dissimilar related to aging. The further study should clarify the impact of motor imagery modalities e. Furthermore, the present finding cannot be seen in movement imagery due to the fact that nerve impulses are restrained to the muscle Thus, further research should also focus on investigating muscle functions during imagined STS in order to see the nerve impulses for particular muscles.
This would shed light for further development of STS-enhancement programs. In the present research, self-reported MT and the EEG features for the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes in young and older adults were explored under physical and imagined STS movements. Secondly, the brain activity for the frontal and temporal lobes were similar between STS and imagined STS in young and older adults, while the brain activity for the parietal and occipital lobes were different between STS and imagined STS in young adults.
Finally, there was age-related difference in the brain area activated during imagined STS. In conclusion, there was no age-related effect on the ability to generate MI, although the brain areas activated were dissimilar between young and older people for motor planning during MI. The researchers thank the participants for their time in taking part in this study. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
J Phys Ther Sci. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Srisupornkornkool Kanokwan E-mail: ht.
Received Dec 14; Accepted Feb Abstract [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate whether healthy young and older people differ in self-reported movement time and brain activity pattern as indicated by electroencephalography during physical and imagined sit-to-stand movements. Keywords: Electroencephalography, Motor imagery, Sit-to-stand.
Table 1. Participant demographics. Open in a separate window. Table 2.
Self-reported movement time sec. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Comparison of electroencephalography EEG features during physical and imagined sit-to-stand STS in young and older adults. Funding This research was supported by Naresuan University.
Conflict of interest None. Like all the employees of the store, he wore a short lab coat over his clothes with a plastic name tag pinned below his left lapel.
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His name was Siggy. For a message, I clarified.
I believe that if I look long enough at these shelves of psychology books, an insight will come to me. There are many ways you can do this and meditation can help. Mindwise is important. Psychologists should be studying what makes some people disregard the dignity of their fellow men and women and use other people for their own selfish ends. It makes me really mad. Rather the beginning of an unknown and imaginary Spain that I shall, perhaps, never see, but always henceforward dream of: a South with the mad swagger of that cathedral fortress, and its odd, savage look of an unavenged past, with the fierce colour of the orange-brick and the tawny river beneath the great red span of its bridges: a tragic South flaring at sunset as if to tell of some great burning of heretics.
The rocks! Suddenly, at a turning, there came the smell, very sweet and peculiar, of burning olive twigs; and with it, to my soul, a pang and a vision of Sicily, Greece—the real South which I shall never go to. Such homesickness for places I have never been to, is not uncommon with me at this time of year, and on days like this one; making me aware, unexpectedly, of fancied resemblances, and giving to details of the familiar Tuscan landscape a foreign significance and the poignancy of the rarely seen.
The South! And I have vague recollections of the Odyssey or of Theocritus. This longing intensifies the nostalgic connection to place to the extent that a distant point in space, rather than in time, becomes the object of nostalgia. There are moments. I do not call , I feel , the place, Arcadia. The South I shall never go to. And conversely, it is her nostalgic longing for this enchantingly unstable South which enables her to envision it so strongly from her home in the first place.
Lee writes:. And so, if I did not want … if I did not want the South, Sicily, Greece, Arcadia, it is probable I should not have felt that little stab of envy and sadness when the smell of burning olive-wood met me on my hillside. But it is certain also that I should not have made those places for myself, extracted and built them up out of this Tuscany lying at my hand.
There would have been only one South, one Sicily, Greece or Arcadia. Now there are two.
I knew, by that sound, that scent, that this real Greece was the one I have loved for years, recognising, I scarce know how, its every vestige in other places: the Greece I have loved in the stony torrent bed behind Nervi and in its pines overhanging the sea; in the ever-green hills and wide stubble valley where the Albegna runs swift and shallow through the empty Sienese Maremma; in the island valleys of Monte Argentaro; above all, where the goats browse among the rocks above my house.
Yes; the Greece I have made up is the real one; or the grace and the loveliness of the real one is that of the Greece of my fancy. The chain of constructing Thirdspace visions of the South through previously existing and remembered Southern visions continues. Writing again from Italy, she says that. I have brought back from [Greece] a sadness which is new and unexpected.
The sadness of understanding, what I seem never to have guessed before, that the world of Hellas has perished; is dead, buried, its very grave devastated. Till now, somehow, one seemed to think that it still existed; a land east of the sun and west of the moon, where temples stood, and statues still arose out of the earth; and the gods might still haunt their groves and the nymphs their well-heads.
And now I know that such a country does not exist; that these museums, all the world over, hold far the greater amount of the wreckage of that lost world.
Not the gods of Greece only have vanished, but Greece itself. This is what scholarly institutions have made of all Greek things: Antiquity broken and stained and damaged inevitably; but which might at least have been stained and broken like the figures which have remained on the Parthenon, or the statues in the groves of Roman villas, made almost into organic things by the mere action of the centuries. It is in the actual locations of the ancient Greek and Roman South that the genius loci can be present; and at its most powerful the spirit of place can bring together the unvisited, the envisioned and the remembered in order to create a temporary Arcadia in a Thirdspace vision.
Comparative Critical Studies Cary , Richard. Colby Quarterly 5. Casey , Edward.